Note A1: “Something is part of something else” – the basic form
1. A fly is a small insect with two wings. 2. A zebra is a wild horse with black and white stripes that lives in Africa. 3. An ape is a type of animal like a monkey that lives among trees in hot countries and has long, strong arms and no tail. 4. A vase is a container that is used for holding flowers. (There was a small vase of flowers on the table.) 5. Your nose is the part of your face that sticks out above your mouth. You use it for smelling and for breathing.
Note A2: Their function(s) may clearly be defined – Used for what?
6. A vase is a container that is used for holding flowers. (There was a small vase of flowers on the table.) 7. A zoo is a park where animals are kept and people can go to look at them. (He took his son to the zoo.) 8. A key is a specially shaped piece of metal that opens or closes a lock. 9. A blog is a website that describes the daily life of the person who writes it, and also their thoughts and ideas. 10. A modifier is a word or group of words that modifies another word or group. In some descriptions of grammar, only words that are used before a noun are called modifiers.
Note A3: Either singular or plural, either countable or uncountable, either visible or invisible – Are they unique (as a proper noun)? Or abstract (like peace, love, hope, joy)?
11. Drizzle is light rain falling in fine drops. 12. Ripples are little waves on the surface of water. 13. Goodness is the quality of being kind, helpful, and honest. (He believes in human goodness.) 14. Learning is the process of gaining knowledge through studying. 15. Google is a computer program that you can use to search for information on the Internet. (Why don’t you look him up on Google?)
Note A4: In the simplified form “P = Q” (e.g. An hour is 60 minutes; 狗 = dog.)
16. An expression is a word or phrase. (Try to learn a few words and expressions in the language.) 17. To live means to be alive. (We all need water to live.) 18. Sometimes means on some occasions rather than all the time. (I sometimes sit out in the garden and read. Sometimes he’s a little rude.) 19. A fly is a small insect [with two wings]. 20. An ape is a type of animal [like a monkey that lives among trees in hot countries and has long, strong arms and no tail].
Note A5: A short form called “abbreviation"
21. PC is short for personal computer. (The price of PCs is falling.) 22. ATM is a machine that allows people to take money from their bank account, using a special card. ATM is short for “automated teller machine." 23. Q & A is a situation in which a person or group of people asks questions and another person or group of people answers them. Q & A is short for “question and answer.” 24. A personal EQ is a measure of their interpersonal and communication skills. EQ is an abbreviation for “emotional quotient.” 25. NNCS is short of “NationalNantouCommercialSchool.”
Note A6: “… is something that …” “… is a person who …” – words/phrases to describe! An adjective clause!
26. A fact is something that you know is true. 27. A joke is something that someone says to make you laugh. (He made a joke about it.) 28. A present is something that you give to someone, for example, on their birthday. (She bought a birthday present for her mother.) 29. A dream is something that you often think about because you would like it to happen. [See also the following definition, 30.] 30. A dream is a series of events that you see in your mind while you are asleep.
Note A7: Some other examples – Beyond the original meaning? Only one of the meanings explained? The general idea? Or a specific/particular fact? – Denotation vs. Connotation.
31. In music, a key is a particular scale of musical notes. (… the key of A minor.) 32. The keys of a piano are the white and black bars that you press in order to play it. 33. The keys on a computer keyboard are the buttons that you press in order to operate it. (Now press the “Delete” key.) 34. The genesis of something is its beginning, birth, or creation; a formal word. [= origin] Compare: Genesis is the first book of the Bible, which includes the stories of the creation of the world, Noah’s Ark, the Tower of Babel, and the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph. 35. Kuso is the term used in East Asia for the internet culture that generally includes all types of camp and parody. In Japanese, kuso (糞,くそ?) means shit, and is often uttered as an interjection. It is also used to describe outrageous matters and objects of poor quality. This definition of kuso was brought into Taiwan in around 2000 by young people who frequent Japanese websites and quickly became an internet phenomenon, spreading to Hong Kong and subsequently to China. [Quoted from the English Wikipedia.]
= = = Definition Type B = = =
Note B1: Modifiers preceding the word (or phrase) that they modified
1. Accurate information is correct. (I can’t give an accurate description of the man because it was too dark.) 2. Live animals or plants are not dead. (The local market sells live animals.) 3. An open-minded person is willing to listen to other people’s ideas. (He says that he is open-minded about tomorrow’s talk) 4. An imaginary person, place, or thing exists only in your mind or in a story, and not in real life. (Lots of children have imaginary friends.) 5. The key person or thing in a group is the most important one. (He’s a key player on the team.)
Note B2: Modifiers following the word (or phrase) that they modified